2.15 C2 - Capacitance Match
The inter-winding capacitance match test calculates the ratio between two
capacitance measurements on two groups of windings.
It is measured by applying a specified ac voltage between two separate
windings and the voltage across and current flow between the two windings
is measured to obtain a complex impedance.
This is performed to the two groups in turn. This test is suitable for
switched mode power supply, audio and telecommunication transformers. It
checks that the windings are installed in the correct positions on the
When calculating capacitance match the tester performs 2 capacitance
Firstly the tester applies an ac voltage between first group of windings
to be tested, usually with all taps on each winding shorted together.
It then measures the voltage between the windings, and the resulting
current using harmonic analysis.
Dividing the voltage by the current gives the interwinding impedance,
from which the capacitance may be calculated.
his is then repeated for the second winding group. The capacitance match
is the ratio of first to second winding group capacitances.
The test voltage can be in the range of 1mV to 5V at a frequency of 20Hz
The table below gives the recommended test conditions for different
values of average capacitance: -
|Preferred test signal
| 1pF → 10pF
10pF → 100pF
100pF → 1nF
1nF → 10nF
10nF → 100nF
The Test Conditions for Capacitance Match Measurement
When choosing the test conditions, the following potential problems
should be considered: -
a) Current levels
For larger capacitances, particularly at higher frequencies, the current
flowing during the measurement can be very high, and similarly the
measured current could also be very small for small capacitances at lower
frequencies and voltages.
Where possible, you should use the recommended test signal levels in the
table above to ensure that the currents which flow can be measured
b) Non-linear Capacitance
Normally non-linearities in the stray capacitance of transformers are not
a problem, and therefore capacitance is measured with as large a voltage
c) Equivalent Circuit
As with inductance, capacitance is actually measured as a complex
impedance, and therefore the result can be expressed in terms of either a
series or a parallel equivalent circuit.
It was explained in section 1.5. of this chapter, that parallel and
series equivalent inductance do not necessarily have the same values. The
same is true for capacitance; parallel and series equivalents can also be
The tester uses a parallel equivalent circuit for capacitance
measurements, and does not give you a choice of a series equivalent.
Generally, this will present no problems, as on the majority of
transformers the difference between the two values is usually negligible,
and can be ignored.