**Document**

**Name**

# The Voltech Handbook of Transformer Testing

**Description**

1 Transformer Basics |

2 Available Tests |

2.0 Available Tests On The AT Series |

2.1 CTY - Continuity |

2.2 R - Winding Resistance |

2.3 RLS or RLP - Equivalent Series or Parallel R |

2.4 LS_LP - Primary Inductance |

2.5 LSB_LPB - Inductance With Bias Current |

2.6 QL - Q factor |

2.7 D - Dissipation Factor |

2.8 LL - Leakage Inductance |

2.9 C - Inter-winding Capacitance |

2.10 TR - Turns Ratio and Phasing |

2.11 TRL - Turns Ratio by Inductance |

2.12 Z_ZB - Impedance_Impedance with Bias |

2.13 R2 - DC Resistance Match |

2.14 L2 - Inductance Match |

2.15 C2 - Capacitance Match |

2.16 GBAL - General Longitudinal Balance |

2.17 LBAL - Longitudinal Balance |

2.18 ILOS - Insertion Loss |

2.19 RESP - Frequency Response |

2.20 RLOS - Return Loss |

2.21 ANGL - Impedance Phase Angle |

2.22 PHAS - Inter-winding Phase Test |

2.23 TRIM - Trimming Adjustment |

2.24 OUT - Output To User Port |

2.25 IR - Insulation Resistance |

2.26 HPDC - DC HI-POT |

2.27 HPAC - AC HI-POT |

2.28 SURG - Surge Stress Test |

2.29 STRW - Stress Watts |

2.30 MAGI - Magnetizing Current |

2.31 VOC - Open Circuit Voltage |

2.32 WATX - Wattage (External Source) |

2.33 STRX - Stress Watts (External Source) |

2.34 MAGX - Magnetizing Current (Ext. Source) |

2.35 VOCX - O.C. Voltage (External Source) |

2.36 LVOC - Low Voltage Open Circuit |

2.37 ILK - Leakage Current |

2.38 LSBX - Inductance with External Bias (Series) |

2.39 LPBX - Inductance with External Bias (Parallel) |

2.40 ZBX - Impedance with External Bias |

2.41 ACRT - AC HI-POT Ramp |

2.42 DCAT - DC HI-POT Ramp |

2.43 ACVB - AC Voltage Break Down |

2.44 DCVB - DC Voltage Break Down |

2.45 WATT - Wattage |

3 Examples of Different Transformer Types |

## 2.15 C2 - Capacitance Match

### Where Used

The inter-winding capacitance match test calculates the ratio between two capacitance measurements on two groups of windings.

It is measured by applying a specified ac voltage between two separate windings and the voltage across and current flow between the two windings is measured to obtain a complex impedance.

This is performed to the two groups in turn. This test is suitable for switched mode power supply, audio and telecommunication transformers. It checks that the windings are installed in the correct positions on the bobbin.

### Measurement Conditions

When calculating capacitance match the tester performs 2 capacitance measurements.

Firstly the tester applies an ac voltage between first group of windings to be tested, usually with all taps on each winding shorted together.

It then measures the voltage between the windings, and the resulting current using harmonic analysis.

Dividing the voltage by the current gives the interwinding impedance, from which the capacitance may be calculated.

his is then repeated for the second winding group. The capacitance match is the ratio of first to second winding group capacitances.

The test voltage can be in the range of 1mV to 5V at a frequency of 20Hz to 3MHz.

The table below gives the recommended test conditions for different values of average capacitance: -

Average Inductance (Geometric Mean) |
Preferred test signal | |

Frequency | Voltage | |

1pF → 10pF 10pF → 100pF 100pF → 1nF 1nF → 10nF 10nF → 100nF |
100KHz 100KHz 10KHz 1KHz 100Hz |
5V 5V 5V 5V 5V |

### The Test Conditions for Capacitance Match Measurement

When choosing the test conditions, the following potential problems should be considered: -

#### a) Current levels

For larger capacitances, particularly at higher frequencies, the current flowing during the measurement can be very high, and similarly the measured current could also be very small for small capacitances at lower frequencies and voltages.

Where possible, you should use the recommended test signal levels in the table above to ensure that the currents which flow can be measured accurately.

#### b) Non-linear Capacitance

Normally non-linearities in the stray capacitance of transformers are not a problem, and therefore capacitance is measured with as large a voltage as possible.

#### c) Equivalent Circuit

As with inductance, capacitance is actually measured as a complex impedance, and therefore the result can be expressed in terms of either a series or a parallel equivalent circuit.

It was explained in section 1.5. of this chapter, that parallel and series equivalent inductance do not necessarily have the same values. The same is true for capacitance; parallel and series equivalents can also be different.

The tester uses a parallel equivalent circuit for capacitance measurements, and does not give you a choice of a series equivalent.

Generally, this will present no problems, as on the majority of transformers the difference between the two values is usually negligible, and can be ignored.