**Document**

**Name**

# The Voltech Handbook of Transformer Testing

**Description**

1 Transformer Basics |

2 Available Tests |

2.0 Available Tests On The AT Series |

2.1 CTY - Continuity |

2.2 R - Winding Resistance |

2.3 RLS or RLP - Equivalent Series or Parallel R |

2.4 LS_LP - Primary Inductance |

2.5 LSB_LPB - Inductance With Bias Current |

2.6 QL - Q factor |

2.7 D - Dissipation Factor |

2.8 LL - Leakage Inductance |

2.9 C - Inter-winding Capacitance |

2.10 TR - Turns Ratio and Phasing |

2.11 TRL - Turns Ratio by Inductance |

2.12 Z_ZB - Impedance_Impedance with Bias |

2.13 R2 - DC Resistance Match |

2.14 L2 - Inductance Match |

2.15 C2 - Capacitance Match |

2.16 GBAL - General Longitudinal Balance |

2.17 LBAL - Longitudinal Balance |

2.18 ILOS - Insertion Loss |

2.19 RESP - Frequency Response |

2.20 RLOS - Return Loss |

2.21 ANGL - Impedance Phase Angle |

2.22 PHAS - Inter-winding Phase Test |

2.23 TRIM - Trimming Adjustment |

2.24 OUT - Output To User Port |

2.25 IR - Insulation Resistance |

2.26 HPDC - DC HI-POT |

2.27 HPAC - AC HI-POT |

2.28 SURG - Surge Stress Test |

2.29 STRW - Stress Watts |

2.30 MAGI - Magnetizing Current |

2.31 VOC - Open Circuit Voltage |

2.32 WATX - Wattage (External Source) |

2.33 STRX - Stress Watts (External Source) |

2.34 MAGX - Magnetizing Current (Ext. Source) |

2.35 VOCX - O.C. Voltage (External Source) |

2.36 LVOC - Low Voltage Open Circuit |

2.37 ILK - Leakage Current |

2.38 LSBX - Inductance with External Bias (Series) |

2.39 LPBX - Inductance with External Bias (Parallel) |

2.40 ZBX - Impedance with External Bias |

2.41 ACRT - AC HI-POT Ramp |

2.42 DCAT - DC HI-POT Ramp |

2.43 ACVB - AC Voltage Break Down |

2.44 DCVB - DC Voltage Break Down |

2.45 WATT - Wattage |

3 Examples of Different Transformer Types |

## 2.30 MAGI - Magnetizing Current

Magnetizing current is the term used to denote the total current that flows into the primary of a transformer when the transformer is energized at a specific voltage and frequency, with the secondaries open circuited.

Although known as magnetizing current it is actually the combination of
the current required to magnetize the core (I_{1}) and the current
required to supply the losses in the core (I_{2})

### Where Used

The AT5600 offers two basic alternative ways to confirm that the transformer has been assembled properly, with the appropriate number of primary and secondary turns, the right grade of magnetic material for the core, and the correct air gap if required.

Magnetising current and open circuit voltage are the preferred tests for line frequency transformers, designed to operate over the full extent of the B-H curve, including the non-linear regions. (For other transformers, such as pulse transformers and those used in switched mode power supplies, inductance and turns ratio are the preferred tests.)

### Measurement Conditions

When measuring magnetising current, you should normally program the test to apply the highest working voltage at the lowest working frequency to the primary winding.

In the case of a transformer with a split primary, the test can be conducted equally well by energising just one of the primary windings, as opposed to the two in series. The expected current will be greater for the single winding, rising in proportion to the turns ratio: -

I_{A} = I_{AB} x (N_{AB} / N_{A})

Where

I_{A} = The current to be specified when testing with winding A

I_{AB} = The current for windings A and B in series

N_{A} = The number of turns on winding A

N_{AB} = The number of turns on A and B in series

(As an alternative, the formula above can be written using the voltage
ratio between the two windings, rather than the turns ratio.)

In principle, you may measure the magnetising current using any winding, or any series combination of windings, with the current limit adjusted according to the formula above, because the Ampere-turns required to magnetise a transformer to a given flux level is independent of which winding is used. In practice, the magnetising current waveform may have a transient component following the switch-on of the test voltage. To give you repeatable accurate results, the measurement does not start until any transient has settled. In addition, to give you the quickest test execution time, the AT uses a switch-on sequence, which minimises such transient effects.

### Specifying the Test Limits

The AT offers you two ways to specify the test limits: -

Using a true rms measurement

Using a mean-sense measurement, which is scaled to rms for sinewaves.

Generally the rms value would be used.

However, you may wish to use the second method if, for example, your test
limits have been established by a previous measurement on a low cost
multimeter which uses this technique.