7.1.12 TRL  Turns Ratio By Inductance
WHERE USED
The AT3600 offers two basic alternative ways to confirm that the transformer has been assembled properly, with the appropriate number of primary and secondary turns.
Turns ratio is the preferred test for signal, pulse and switched mode power transformers, where the normal operating conditions require only small excursions of the BH curve, never extending beyond the linear regions.
Where the magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary is poor, it is preferable to measure the turns ratio by inductance. This test measures the inductance of both the primary and secondary and calculates the turns ratio from these measured values.
(For line frequency transformers, designed to operate over the full extent of the BH curve, including the nonlinear regions, the preferred method is to use an open  circuit voltage test to check for the correct number of turns on each winding.)
Clearly a turns ratio test cannot tell you the actual number of turns on a winding, only the ratio between one winding and the next. You should therefore have at least one inductance test in your program to give confidence that the absolute number of turns is correct as well as the ratio.
MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
The inductance of a winding can often depend upon the flux density in the core/windings. Since during measurement, the flux density will depend upon the signal energising the winding, it is important that both windings are energized at the same level. This will ensure that both inductances are measured along the same region of the B/H curve of the core, to give a true ratio.
SETTING THE TEST PARAMETERS
The simplest method of setting the test parameters is to use the ‘Measure’ button, to do this you have to program the test from a computer which is connected to the Auxiliary port of the tester. There are two other methods of inputting the test parameters, one is to set the primary voltage and frequency and let the editor set the secondary voltage, and the second is to set both voltages manually.
USING THE MEASURE BUTTON TO SET TEST PARAMETERS
To do this you must be programming the test from a computer that is connected to the tester’s auxiliary port. Select the integration period you require, enter the primary and secondary terminals, then click on the measure button. The editor will then enter the test signal and show the measured turns ratio. Set percentage limits on this ratio and click ‘OK’ (you may select a polarity test before clicking ‘OK’).
USING THE AUTO BUTTON TO SET SECONDARY VOLTAGE
To do this you must know the primary inductance.
Select the test voltage and frequency for the primary from the table below and enter them in the TRL dialogue box. Enter the turns ratio, then press the ‘Auto’ button next to the secondary voltage parameter, the tester will automatically select the appropriate test voltage for the secondary winding when the program is running.
SETTING THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PARAMETERS MANUALLY
To do this you will need to know the inductance of the primary and secondary windings.
The optimum test conditions are chosen for an inductance value that is between the primary and secondary (L_{m}).
Where:
L_{m} = Intermediate inductance
L_{p} = Primary inductance
L_{s} = Secondary inductance
V_{p} = Primary voltage
V_{s} = Secondary voltage
V_{m} = Intermediate voltage
N_{p} = Primary turns
N_{s} = Secondary turns
Look up the recommended test signal for this inductance.
Enter the recommended frequency for this inductance as the test frequency.
The primary and secondary voltages can be calculated from the following:
If you calculate V_{s} or V_{p} to be greater than 5V, you should set 5V as your test signal.
If you calculate V_{s} or V_{p} to be less than 1mV, you should set 1mV as your test signal.
Intermediate Inductance
(L_{m}) 
Preferred test signal 
Frequency 
Voltage (V_{m}) 
100nH → 1uH
1uH → 10uH
10uH → 100uH
100uH → 1mH
1mH → 10mH
10mH → 100mH
100mH → 1H
1H → 10H
10H → 100H
100H → 1KH
1KH → 10KH

300KHz
100KHz
30KHz
10KHz
1KHz
100Hz
100Hz
50Hz
50Hz
50Hz
20Hz 
10mV
30mV
50mV
100mV
100mV
100mV
300mV
1V
5V
5V
5V 
The Test Conditions for Turns Ratio by Inductance Measurement
SPECIFYING THE TEST LIMITS
When specifying turns ratio tests, it is preferable to avoid limits which are unnecessarily tight, and which may therefore lead to measurement difficulties.
For example, if two equal secondary windings should have 10 turns each, the ratio should be 1:1. One turn in error would produce a ratio error of 10% or 10% (i.e. 11:10 or 10:11), and therefore limits of +5% and 5% would be suitable to detect the error.